There’s plenty written on the web on the differences between the different screen types, but by asking this question I assume you want a quick and simple explanation rather than a bunch of technical terms.
There are two main types of screens - LCD and OLED (AMOLED is an OLED sub-type and all OLED smartphones use AMOLD panels). LCD is the older technology and it relies on a backlight that gets filtered through a layer of colored Xiaomi Mi Mix Specs
crystals to produce different colors. To display black it just makes that layer as non-transparent as possible, but it can’t completely switch off the backlight as it will just shut off the entire display.
With OLEDs on the other hand, each individual pixel lights Apple iPhone 6s Plus Review up so when it needs to display black, the pixel just switches off.
As for those other listed abbreviations - all smartphone LCDs are TFT, but spelling it out every time is a bit redundant so you don’t see TFT LCD every time. TN and IPS are two different types of arrangements for the crystal arrangements with IPS being a newer technology and allowing for improved contrast and wider viewing angles. The LED is another type of LCD, where the backlight is not a single bulb but a bunch of small diodes.